11 I say then, they did not1 stumble so that they might fall, did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles to make them2 jealous. 12 But if their transgression be riches for the world and their failure3 be riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their fulfillment4 be.
13 But I say to you, Gentiles, in as much as I am an apostle for Gentiles5, I glorify6 my ministry, 14 if somehow I may make my race7 jealous and save some of them8. 15 For if their defeat9 is the reconciliation of the world10, what is their acceptance if not life from the dead11? 16 But if the first portion12 is consecrated13, the lump of dough is also, and if the roots are consecrated, the branches are also.
17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree of which were grafted in among them, you become a sharer14 of the root of richness of the olive tree, 18 do not boast against the branches which have been cut off. But if you boast against15 them, remember that you don’t bear the root, but the root bears you16. 19 You will say therefore, “The branches were broken off so that I may be grafted in”. 20 That is true. They were broken off by unbelief, but you stand by faith, but don’t think highly17, but be afraid18. 21 For if God didn’t spare the ones who are branches by nature, [lest in some way or other]19 he will not spare you either. 22 Therefore behold the kindness and severity of God. To the ones who fell, severity, but to you, the kindness of God, if you will continue20 in kindness21, otherwise even you will be cut off. 23 And those also, if they don’t remain in unbelief, they will be grafted in. For God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree and grafted in with a cultivated22 olive tree, how much more are those who are by nature will be grafted in their own23 olive tree.24
1 μὴ (not)
This expects a “no” answer. Paul expresses this with μὴ γένοιτο (May it never be!)
2 “Them” being the Jews. The Jews are to become jealous because of the Gentiles.
3 τὸ ἥττημα (failure)
The lack of obtaining a desirable position. Their failure to embrace the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
4 τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῶν (their fulfillment)
or “their completeness”. In other words, how great it will be when the Jews come to know Christ. That is, when the “remnant” joins the “remaining”, the result will be great!
5 ἐθνῶν (for Gentiles)
or “of Gentiles”. The context of the passage supports “for Gentiles” or “to Gentiles”.
6 δοξάζω (I glorify)
or “I praise highly”. Paul puts his ministry on a high plain to try to help his fellow Jews to become jealous.
7 τὴν σάρκα (race)
Greek: “flesh”. Idiomatic in nature. Paul is referring to his fellow Jews.
8 ἐξ αὐτῶν (of them)
Greek: “from them” as in “save some from the whole (of Israel).”
9 ἡ ἀποβολὴ (defeat)
or “loss”. The noun means to be non-existent.
10 In other words, Israel’s loss is the rest of the world’s gain. Israel lose’s the true Messiah, but the Gentiles gain from Israel’s loss.
11 In other words, although Israel is in total destruction right now, at some point they will return to the grace of God and it will be a huge event, in as much as it will be like being raised from the dead, which is exactly what happens when the “full number of the Gentiles comes in” in verse 25.
12 ἡ ἀπαρχὴ (first portion)
or “first-fruit”. The first of something. In this case, Paul is speaking about dough, but is making a connection with the consecrated Israel of the OT.
13 ἁγία (consecrated)
14 συγκοινωνὸς (sharer)
or “a participant”.
15 κατακαυχῶ (boast against)
or “degrade”. Apparently, the Roman Church had started degrading the Jews for their lack of accepting the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul is trying to keep them from doing this.
16 A reminder that the fathers of Israel are the actual root and without that root, the Gentiles would not be part of the tree at all.
17 μὴ ὑψηλὰ φρόνει (don’t think highly)
or “don’t thing of yourself highly” as in over the branches that were broken off. In other words, the Gentiles are not superior to the Jews.
18 φοβοῦ (be afraid)
19 [μή πως] [lest in some way or other]
This is in brackets as it may not be original to the letter. One can see why it may have been added.
20 ἐπιμένῃς (continue)
21 Paul is possibly referring back to the Roman Churches boasting against the Jews. God’s kindness and christian kindness should be the same.
22 καλλιέλαιον (cultivated)
23 ἰδίᾳ (their own)
or “one’s own”.
24 Paul is basically saying that if Israel comes to believe in Jesus, it will be very easy to graft them back into the main body of the tree as they were part of the tree to begin with.
Ῥωμαίους 11·11 Λέγω οὖν, μὴ ἔπταισαν ἵνα πέσωσιν; μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ τῷ αὐτῶν παραπτώματι ἡ σωτηρία τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εἰς τὸ παραζηλῶσαι αὐτούς. 12 εἰ δὲ τὸ παράπτωμα αὐτῶν πλοῦτος κόσμου καὶ τὸ ἥττημα αὐτῶν πλοῦτος ἐθνῶν, πόσῳ μᾶλλον τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῶν. 13 Ὑμῖν δὲ λέγω τοῖς ἔθνεσιν· ἐφ ̓ ὅσον μὲν οὖν εἰμι ἐγὼ ἐθνῶν ἀπόστολος, τὴν διακονίαν μου δοξάζω, 14 εἴ πως παραζηλώσω μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ σώσω τινὰς ἐξ αὐτῶν. 15 εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀποβολὴ αὐτῶν καταλλαγὴ κόσμου, τίς ἡ πρόσλημψις εἰ μὴ ζωὴ ἐκ νεκρῶν; 16 εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀπαρχὴ ἁγία, καὶ τὸ φύραμα· καὶ εἰ ἡ ῥίζα ἁγία, καὶ οἱ κλάδοι. 17 Εἰ δέ τινες τῶν κλάδων ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ ἀγριέλαιος ὢν ἐνεκεντρίσθης ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ συγκοινωνὸς τῆς ῥίζης τῆς πιότητος τῆς ἐλαίας ἐγένου, 18 μὴ κατακαυχῶ τῶν κλάδων· εἰ δὲ κατακαυχᾶσαι οὐ σὺ τὴν ῥίζαν βαστάζεις ἀλλὰ ἡ ῥίζα σέ. 19 ἐρεῖς οὖν· ἐξεκλάσθησαν κλάδοι ἵνα ἐγὼ ἐγκεντρισθῶ. 20 καλῶς· τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ τῇ πίστει ἕστηκας. μὴ ὑψηλὰ φρόνει ἀλλὰ φοβοῦ· 21 εἰ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τῶν κατὰ φύσιν κλάδων οὐκ ἐφείσατο, [μή πως] οὐδὲ σοῦ φείσεται. 22 ἴδε οὖν χρηστότητα καὶ ἀποτομίαν θεοῦ· ἐπὶ μὲν τοὺς πεσόντας ἀποτομία, ἐπὶ δὲ σὲ χρηστότης θεοῦ, ἐὰν ἐπιμένῃς τῇ χρηστότητι, ἐπεὶ καὶ σὺ ἐκκοπήσῃ. 23 κἀκεῖνοι δέ, ἐὰν μὴ ἐπιμένωσιν τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ, ἐγκεντρισθήσονται· δυνατὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς πάλιν ἐγκεντρίσαι αὐτούς. 24 εἰ γὰρ σὺ ἐκ τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἐξεκόπης ἀγριελαίου καὶ παρὰ φύσιν ἐνεκεντρίσθης εἰς καλλιέλαιον, πόσῳ μᾶλλον οὗτοι οἱ κατὰ φύσιν ἐγκεντρισθήσονται τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐλαίᾳ.