Saturday, November 9, 2013

John 20:21-22; Living Being and Immortal Being

John 20:21 Then Jesus said to them again, “Peace be to you.  Just as the Father has sent me, I will also send you.”  22 After saying this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit!  If you forgive anyone’s sins, they have been forgiven.  If you hold in place anyone’s sins, they have been held in place. (My Translation)

There are several interesting moments in this passage.  The first one is the word-play on “send” that occurs in verse 21.  The first word is ἀποστέλλω (apostellō) and the second one is πέμπω (pempō).  There is no significant difference in meaning.  In fact, John’s Gospel is riddled with word-plays throughout.  It is his style, in my opinion, to make his written Gospel memorable.

The second feature is the direct allusion to Genesis 2:7.  If one looks at the passage in the LXX (the Septuagint, the OT in Greek), one will see that the very same verb, in the very same tense was used for “to breath on”.  Let me demonstrate that.

22 καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἐνεφύσησεν καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· λάβετε πνεῦμα ἅγιον·

22 After saying this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit!

Gen. 2:7 καὶ ἔπλασεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον χοῦν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐνεφύσησεν εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ πνοὴν ζωῆς, καὶ ἐγένετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν.  LXX

Gen. 2:7 God formed man, dust from of the earth, and breathed on/into his face a breath of life, and the man became a living being.  LXX (My Translation)

The third feature has to do with what was breathed on Adam and what was breathed on the disciples.  In Genesis, God breathed “a breath of life”, while in John, Jesus breathed on the disciples “the Holy Spirit”.  There is a cognate relationship between “breath” and “Spirit”.  Both words are cognate nouns from the verb πνέω (pneō).  You can see how the roots of the words are the same. 

πνέω (pneō)
πνοή (pnoē)
πνεῦμα (pneuma)

Also, πνεῦμα (pneuma) can also mean “breath”, “wind”, or “spirit”.

So, in Genesis, God formed man and put life into him so that he would become “alive” (a living being), but in John, Jesus breaths on people who are already “living beings” with the Holy Spirit (breath) and they become “immortal” and received “eternal life”.  “Point A”, mankind lives, “Point B”, mankind not only lives, but lives forever.

The last feature of the passage is the disciples receiving what is the equivalent to “binding and loosing” in Matthew 16:19 and Matthew 18:18.  Here, if the disciples “forgive sin”, those peoples’ sins “have been forgiven”, which is in the perfect tense.  In Greek, the perfect tense indicates an action that has occurred in the past, but the effects of that action are still felt at the present time.  It is the same with the last phrase; “If you hold in place anyone’s sins, they have been held in place.”

It is interesting to consider that what the Apostles “will do” has “already been done”.  If they forgive sins, God has already forgiven them.  It puts into prospective who is really “the prime mover and shaker”.

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Bel and the Dragon; The Use of κόμη (komē), LXX Studies.

I read “Bel and the Dragon” in Greek this weekend.  I’m trying to work in some LXX reading in my schedule.  It was an interesting story.  For those who are not familiar with the story, it is a late addition to Daniel and was translated into Greek.  As I alluded to before, this story is found in the Septuagint (LXX).  

Daniel is in Babylon and shows the king how Bel (Βηλ), a Babylonian idol, is not a real god.  Also, Daniel shows the king and a dragon that they are worshipping is also not a god.  After Daniel messes up the Babylonians’ “gods”,  they throw him into a pit with seven lions.  Daniel stays in there six days before an angel of the Lord tells Hambakoum (Habakkuk, a prophet?) to take his food to Daniel in Babylon.  Hambakoum responds that he has never been to Babylon and doesn’t know were the pit is.  Here comes the funny part.

36 After taking hold of Hambakoum by the long hair of his head (τῆς κόμης αὐτοῦ τῆς κεφαλῆς), the angel of the Lord put him above the pit in Babylon.

Daniel gets out and the ones who accused him get thrown into the pit where they are devoured by the lions.

I want to deal with the use of κόμη (komē) here in verse 36.  For those who think it just means “hair”, be advised that the normal word of hair, θρίξ (thrix), is used in verse 27.  Paul uses κόμη (komē) to describe the Corinthians women’s long hair in 1 Corinthians 11.  In that passage, one of the reasons Paul argues for women to wear head coverings was because their long hair was like a head covering.  Paul also argues that culture shows that long hair on men was dishonorable.  So, what does the use of κόμη (komē) in "Bel and the Dragon" tell us?  It tells us that perhaps men with long hair was not taboo among the Jews before Jesus’ time, but it was taboo in the Greek/Roman culture in which the Corinthians existed.

On another note, it is just interesting that an angel would pick up a fellow by the long hair of his head and take him somewhere.  That must have hurt!

Sunday, August 18, 2013

Hebrews 13:7-8;17; The Past and the Present Leaders

13:7 Remember your leaders who spoke the word of God (God’s message) to you.  Imitate their (the) faith, examining carefully (considering) the end result of their way of life.  8 Jesus the Anointed is the same yesterday, today, and forever.  (Hebrews 13:7-8 My Translation)

This passage suffers from much misunderstandings.  Many people believe that this passage refers to current leaders over current congregations.  The fact is that this passage actually refers to past leaders who probably started the congregations to which the writer of Hebrews is writing to.

Two things reflect this: 1. The syntax of the Greek text and 2. the context of the Greek text.

First of all, “the leaders” spoke (ἐλάλησαν, past tense) God’s message (the word of God) which probably means that these leader are the ones who established the congregations of which the writer of Hebrews is now writing to.

The context of the passage refers the reader to examine carefully (ἀναθεωροῦντες) the end result (ἔκβασιν) of these leaders’ way of life.  The main phrase to consider here (yes, this is both pun and irony) is τὴν ἔκβασιν τῆς ἀναστροφῆς (the end result of “their” [ὧν] way of life).  Let’s look at the BDAG’s definitions for ἔκβασις.  

1. end point of a duration, end ἐ. τῆς ἀναστροφῆς Hb 13:7 can mean the end of one’s life (cp. Marinus, Vi. Procli 26 ἐ. τοῦ βίου; Wsd 2:17), but can also be understood as
2. outcome of an event or state, outcome (cp. PRyl 122, 5 [II AD]=produce [τῶν ἐδαφῶν]; Wsd 11:14) as result of one’s way of life, w. implication of success Hb 13:7.

“ἔκβασις,” BDAG, 299.

Clearly, the congregations who are being written to are to reflect on how their former leaders’ way of life “played out” or “the result of their” way of life.  The result of this “reflecting” was for the congregations to “imitate that faith”, that is, the faith that these former leaders had.

Why?  The writer gives an example that it doesn’t matter if the leaders were gone are not because “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever”.  He doesn't change, nor does the Gospel change.

For those who read the NT in Greek or read modern translations, this blog is self-evident.  But, there are many who can't read Greek (vast majority) and many who will not read any translation other than the KJV.  This is for those people as the KJV is anything but clear.

7 Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.  8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever. KJV

Now on to verse 17.

17 Be confident with your leaders and submit to them, for they watch for your souls as they will give an account.  They should be able to do this (to give this account) with joy and not with a sigh (or with groaning).  For that will not help you.

This verse should be read in context with verses 7 and 8.  If the past leaders are to be the example, then the current leaders should be imitating the past leaders.  Let’s look at the first verb, πειθώ.

Normally, πειθώ means “to persuade”, but it is in the passive voice here.  So, here it would mean “be persuaded” or “be confident in” what they say as they should be imitating the leaders that came before them.

The congregations should be convinced in their leadership, but they have also been given a guideline for doing so (verses 7-8).

What are we to say about this today?  How can we transfer this to today’s leaders?  Today’s leaders should imitate the leaders that were presented in the New Testament.  If they are not imitating those leaders, then they themselves are not truly leaders.  If today’s leaders want to “rule” the congregation, then they should take Jesus’ teaching in Luke 22:24-30 to heart.

24 “A dispute also arose among them as to which of them was considered to be greatest. 25 Jesus said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors.  26 But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules (same Greek word used in both passages in Hebrews) like the one who serves.  27 For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is at the table? But I am among you as one who serves.  28 You are those who have stood by me in my trials.  29 And I confer on you a kingdom, just as my Father conferred one on me, 30 so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”
(Luke 22:24–30 NIV11)

If today’s leaders are not following the example of the leaders in the NT and are not conforming to Jesus’ teaching on being leaders, the they will NOT be giving an account to God about the congregation which they lead, but an account of themselves.

Friday, June 14, 2013

1 Corinthians 12:7-11; A list of Gifts

In 1 Corinthians 12-14, Paul talks about “things of the Spirit” and tries to correct the Corinthians in abusing the gift of tongues.  In verses 7-10, Paul lists a few of these gifts in order to show that not all people have the same Spiritual gift(s).  By doing so, he seems to group the gifts in certain ways by using the Greek words ᾧ and ἑτέρῳ.  Let me try to demonstrate this starting with verse 7.

7 The manifestation (outward expression/disclosure, announcement) of the Spirit is given to each person for the common good.  8 For to one person (), on the one hand, given a word of wisdom (ability to speak wisely) is given, but to another person (ἄλλῳ), on the other hand, a word of knowledge (ability to speak knowledgable things) is given according to the same Spirit.  9 To a different person (ἑτέρῳ), faith by the same Spirit, but to another person (ἄλλῳ), gracious gifts of healing by the one Spirit.  10 To another person (ἄλλῳ), the ability to effectively work miracles; but to another person (ἑτέρῳ), the ability to speak prophecies; but to another person (ἄλλῳ), the ability to distinguish (and evaluate) spirits; to a different person (ἑτέρῳ), different kinds of tongues; but to another person (ἄλλῳ), the interpretation/translation of tongues. 11 All these things are the effective work of the one and the same Spirit, who distributes to each person his own gift, just as the Spirit determines.

So, here is the breakdown.  The first grouping starts with ᾧ and the others are divided by ἑτέρῳ:

  1. “A word/message of wisdom” and “a word/message of knowledge” go together.
  2. “Faith (the mountain moving kind [13:2])”, “healing gifts”, and “working miracles” go together.
  3. “Speaking prophecies” and “distinguishing and evaluating spirits” go together (more on this below).
  4. “Speaking in different (kinds) of tongues” and “interpreting/translating tongues” go together.

Is it possible that Paul is using the different words for stylistic purposes?  Sure, but I don’t think that is very likely as the groupings seem to be natural divisions.

Another interest aspect of the Greek of this passage is that verses 8-11 is one long sentence.  It goes without saying that the verse division pollutes the passage a little.

One final thing to discuss on this blog.  What does διακρίσεις πνευμάτων (distinguishing and evaluating spirits) actually mean?  A big clue is given in 14:29 where the cognate verb (διακρίνω) of διάκρισις (διακρίσεις) is used.  There, it states that two or three prophets should prophesy and the others of the congregation must “make a distinction, differentiate” along with “evaluate, judge” (See BDAG) what was just prophesied.  The NIV11 translates this as “should weigh carefully what is said”.  So, διακρίσεις πνευμάτων (distinguishing and evaluating spirits) actually means “evaluating prophecies” and that too is a gift.  In fact, there are more examples of this kind of language being used for “prophecy”.  

In the next blog(s) that will come soon, I’ll discuss these phrases: “spirits of prophets” (1 Corinthians. 14:32), “through spirit” (2 Thess 2:2), “don’t believe every spirit” (1 John 4:1), and “test the spirits” (1 John 4:2).

Free Online Resources and Bible College/Seminary Aids

One of my blog readers has a website that lists free online Bible helps as well as Bible College/Seminary Resources for Seminary Students.  Go check it out here.  It looks to be a good resource.

Friday, May 17, 2013

1 Corinthians 8:13; Never Ever Forever!

13 For this very reason, if food causes my brother (or sister) to stumble, I will never eat meat again, so that I will not cause my brother (or sister) to stumble. My Translation

Paul has been talking to the Corinthians about how their “knowledge” that idols are nothing in this world, so it is fine to eat food sacrificed to idols in the Pagan temples will cause weak conscience fellow Christians to sin.  As a result, the “knowledgable” Corinthians sin against Christ (εἰς Χριστὸν ἁμαρτάνετε, verse 12).  He follows that up with a statement about himself that can be translated in many ways.  Here are a few examples:

“Therefore, if what I eat causes my brother or sister to fall into sin, I will never eat meat again, so that I will not cause them to fall.”
(1 Corinthians 8:13 NIV11)

“For this reason, if food causes my brother or sister to sin, I will never eat meat again, so that I may not cause one of them to sin.”
(1 Corinthians 8:13 NET)

“Therefore, if food makes my brother stumble, I will never eat meat, lest I make my brother stumble.”
(1 Corinthians 8:13 ESV)

“Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.”
(1 Corinthians 8:13 KJV)

First of all, let’s discuss the two main verbs in the verse: σκανδαλίζω (skandalizō).  The base meaning of this word is “to cause to stumble”.  Morally, it became “to cause someone to sin”.  In other ways, it means “to offend someone”.  It’s cognate noun is σκάνδαλον (skandalon), which can mean “a stumbling block”, “a trap”, “an enticement” or “an offense”.  We get our modern term “scandal” from this word.

Probably the most interesting aspect of this verse is Paul’s emphatic response.  Let me try to demonstrate this.  First of all, Paul uses οὐ μὴ (not not) when he says “I will never eat meat”.  This use alone causes the statement to be emphatic.  Almost all translators will translate this as I have; “never”.  But for Paul, οὐ μὴ is not enough.  At the end of this phrase, he adds εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα which means “into the age”.  This is the normal Greek idiom for “forever”.  Since “I will never eat meat forever” is awkward English, most translators either translate it out of the verse (See blog on John 4:14 which features the same expression) or translate this prepositional phrase as “again”.

So, for you purists (I’m being funny) who think that the Bible must be translated literally, here goes:

“I shall/will not not eat meat into the age”

If we are to maintain the Greek word order, then:

“not not I shall/will eat into the age”.

Monday, May 6, 2013

1 Corinthians 5:6-8; In the light of the Sun

1 Corinthians 5:6-8:

6 Your boasting is not good.  Don’t you know that a little yeast leavens the whole batch of dough?  7 Clean out the old yeast, so that you may be a new batch of dough, as you are unleavened bread.  For Christ, our passover lamb, has been sacrificed.  8 Therefore, let us not feast/keep the F/festival with old yeast, neither the yeast of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. My Translation

Leading up to this passage, Paul has been reprimanding the Corinthians for taking pride (being puffed up) over a man who is carrying on a sexual relationship with his father’s wife (not his mother).  The Corinthians’ theological flaws are being revealed by Paul.

A couple of things about this passage that may not be so obvious should be pointed out.  First of all, in verse 7 we have καὶ γὰρ τὸ πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη Χριστός which literally means: “And/even for the passover of us has been sacrificed Christ”.  To put it into proper English, it should read: “For Christ, that is/even our passover, has been sacrificed”.  Of course, in order to understand what Paul means here is to understand what the sacrifice of the Passover was, it was a lamb!  Therefore, most modern translations add in “lamb” to the translation as that in undoubtably what Paul means.  This could mean that "festival" should be "The Festival" of Unleavened bread, or as we know it, "The Passover Festival".

The last area of interest appears at the end of this passage: ἀλλ᾿ ἐν ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινείας καὶ ἀληθείας (but in/with unleavened bread of sincerity and truth).  I want to focus on “sincerity”.  One of the things that appeals to me about the Greek text is how the ancients put together words in order to gather a meaning.  In this case, εἰλικρίνεια, which means “a quality or state of being free of dissimulation” or “sincerity” (BDAG), is one of these words.  This word is made up of two Greek words: ἥλιος (sun) and κρίνω (to judge, to decide).  Therefore, the word literally means “to decide/judge by the light of the sun” or “tested by the light of the sun” (TDNT).  Morally, it would mean that whatever is decided or judged is in the light of the sun where all can see it.  Therefore, nothing is hidden from view.  So, if one is sincere, then that are in full view, in the light of the sun for all to see.  Nothing should be hidden from view in a true Christian.

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Codex Sinaiticus: 1 Corinthians 1:8

Since my purchase of Codex Sinaiticus, Facsimile Edition (you can get one here), I've been exploring this great Bible's secrets for myself.  Currently, I'm reading 1 Corinthians.  I'm sure there will be some "nuggets" out of this.  But today, I wanted to share where the scribe wrote 1:8 twice.  The little marks start on line 7 with 'OC and end with IYXY'.  You can also see the marks on the verse on both sides of lines 8, 9, 10, and ending on line 11.  The "first" verse 8 starts on line 2 where the scribe seems to have dipped his stylus into fresh ink as OC is darker than the preceding IYXY.  There are possibly two probables for the mistake: 1. The scribe here made the copy error, or 2. the exemplar (the manuscript that was being copied) already had the mistake which was probably due to the fact that both verse 7 and verse 8 end with IYXY (Jesus Christ).  The scribe's eyes probably went back to the IYXY of verse 7 and copied verse 8 again knowing that the last part was IYXY.

Proof that copying by hand was difficult in the Ancient world.

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Introducing the Biblia Graeca: LXX + NA28

Finally, the German Bible Society is publishing a combined Septuagint (LXX) and the latest Greek New Testament (NA28).  This is something that I've wanted for a couple of years.  It will be released in the fall.  The price is a little hefty, but to have a single volume of both the Greek Old Testament and the Greek New Testament will be well worth it.  See the link here.  Also, see's link here.

The description:

This edition combines the Rahlfs-Hanhart Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) with the 28th edition of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece. A one-of-a-kind, useful tool for pastors, scholars, and students.
- Includes critical apparatus, cross-references, and much more.

Thursday, March 21, 2013

Galatians 3:15; The Cognates of Kυρόω

15 Brothers, to take from a human analogy, I say: even if it is a human covenant that has been ratified, nevertheless, no one can annul it or can add to it. Galatians 3:15

Paul uses the Greek verb κυρόω in verse 15 which means “to give sanction to something, confirm, ratify, validate, make legally binding” (BDAG).  What is not normally taught is that one of this verb’s cognate nouns is κύριος which is translated into English as “lord”.  Another cognate is κῦρος (supreme power), but it is not used in the NT.  Kύριος has a wide range of meanings in the NT, but it mostly given as a title to Jesus.

In the Greek OT (LXX), κύριος is the main word that replaces Yahweh (God’s name) from the Hebrew.  This was done in the LXX because the Jews were afraid that they would take God’s name in vain (or blaspheme), thus breaking the law of Moses.

I would have to say that κύριος is a fitting title for God.  If the verb means to ratify, to validate, to make legally binding, then κύριος is the one who ratifies, validates and make something legally binding.  By example, God spoke the creation into existence.  By speaking it, he ratified it, thus making it happen, thus putting it into existence.

This very idea could have been in John’s thoughts when he penned “In the beginning, there was the word/message”.  When the word is spoken by the one who makes it legally binding, it comes into existence.  The message about Jesus is the message that redeems all humans from their sin by putting their faith in him.  When he speaks it, we are truly pronounced righteous before him and thus sealed with his empowering Holy Spirit.

Sunday, February 17, 2013

Psalms 22 LXX (23); Septuagint Studies

There are some interesting things that go on in Greek rendering of the 23rd Psalm, which is the 22nd Psalm in the LXX.  Let’s take a look at an English translation:

1 A song of David.  The Lord shepherds me, and he causes me to not lack anything.  2 In a grassy place, he has set up a place for me to dwell there.  At the restful water, he has fed me.  3 He has returned my soul to where it once was.  He has led me on the path of righteousness for the sake of his name.  4 For even if I go in the midst of the shadow of death, I will not be afraid of evil things, because you are with me.  Your rod and your staff, they have comforted me.  5 You have prepared a table before me in the presence of the opposition who afflict me.  You have anointed my head with oil.  Your cup makes me drunk as the best wine6 Your mercy will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for a great many days. (My Translation)

Of course, the biggest thing one will see is at the end of verse 5!  The LXX represents Jewish thought at the time it was rendered.  Therefore, “the full cup that is so full of wine that the wine is running over the brim” means that there is so much that one can become drunk.  That wine is not ordinary wine, it is the best wine.  The wine that only the Lord can give.

Brenton translates this part (καὶ τὸ ποτήριόν σου μεθύσκον ὡς κράτιστον) as “and thy cup cheers me like the best wine”.  Now we know how it cheers a person up.

Friday, January 18, 2013

2 Peter 1:20: One’s own (private) interpretation

I know it's been a while since I've posted, but I've been very busy with my teaching duties in my local fellowship.

There seems to be many who appeal to 2 Peter 1:20 when a person has a different view of Scripture that others do.  Many folk’s get this from the KJV’s rendering of this verse.

20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. KJV

Of course, the problem with isolating this verse is that when one removes it from its context, it can mean anything.  In reality, verse 20 is explained by verse 21.  How?  Why?

Verse 21 has the explanatory word γὰρ (for) which means that Peter is now going to explain what he means by what he wrote in Verse 20.  So, to keep the discussion around the KJV, let’s look at the KJV’s rendering of verse 21.

21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. KJV

First and foremost, “holy men” is not in the Greek, even in the Textus Receptus.  Nevertheless, the verse is still a good translation from the Greek.  Now the question is “how does verse 21 explain verse 20 in this KJV rendering?  Quite frankly, it doesn’t.  So, if it doesn’t explain verse 20, then what’s wrong?  Is there a problem with what Peter is trying to say?

The reality is that verse 20 is a terrible translation.  It’s terrible because it came about by early Catholic teaching that the lay people can’t understand Scripture, so therefore, only the priest can explain it to the lay people.  This idea also carried over to the translators of the KJV of the Bible, and has influenced a great deal of Christian churches who still use the KJV.  Let’s take a closer look at verse 20.

The verse’s translation hinges on what ἰδίας (private in KJV) means.  It actually means “one’s own”.  There are times in the NT where it is used as “private”, but it is often used with another word to bring this out.  For instance, in Galatians 2:2 it is used for Paul’s private meeting with Peter, James, and John.  There it is κατ᾿ ἰδίαν (according to one’s own).

So, in verse 20 who is “one’s own” referring to?  In the KJV, it seems that it is the “reader” of the prophecy that is view.  Therefore, the KJV translators translated the passage to mean that.  But if verse 21 explains verse 20, then how can “one’s own” be the person reading the prophecy?  It just can’t!  “One’s own” here is referring to the prophets who spoke the prophecy.  They didn’t come up with the prophecies on their own.  Which was probably what Peter’s opponents were saying.  Peter’s context up onto verse 20 has been that the prophecies in the OT prove what the Apostles are now preaching about Jesus.  Those prophecies were ὡς λύχνῳ φαίνοντι ἐν αὐχμηρῷ τόπῳ (like a lamp shining in a gloomy place).

Here is my translation of the passage along with the NIV11 and the NET which have it right.

20 Knowing this first, that every prophecy in Scripture doesn’t come from one’s own explanation.  21 For prophecy wasn’t ever brought into being by a human’s will, but it was brought into being as the humans (prophets), being carried by the Holy Spirit, spoke from God. My Translation*

20 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things.  21 For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit. NIV11

20 Above all, you do well if you recognize this: No prophecy of scripture ever comes about by the prophet’s own imagination, 21 for no prophecy was ever borne of human impulse; rather, men carried along by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. NET

κατά KJV!

* I translate προφητεία γραφῆς as an objective genitive (Scripture), thus “prophecy in Scripture.  The NLT does the same.