13 And he goes up into the mountain1 and he calls to himself those whom he wanted and they came2 to him. 14 And he appoints3 twelve, who he also named apostles4, so that they might be with him, and that he might send them to proclaim the message given to them5, 15 and to have the authority to cast out demons. 16 And he appointed the twelve6: Simon, who he gave the name Peter7, 17 James, the son of Zebedee, and John, James’ brother (he gave them the name Boanerges, which is “Sons of Thunder”), 18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew8, Thomas, James, the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananaean9 , 19 and Judas Iscariot10, who also betrayed11 him. Mark 3:13-19
1 εἰς τὸ ὄρος (into the mountain)
Not necessarily a specific mountain. It possibly means “into the
mountains or hills”
2 ἀπῆλθον (came)
Literally, “they came away from”. This could show a separation of the
“special” followers from the “general” followers.
3 ἐποίησεν (appoints)
4 ἀποστόλους (apostles)
An apostle is “one who is sent with a message” or “a messenger who is
5 the message given to them
This is not original, but has been added to bring clarity to what
apostles are suppose to do.
6 τοὺς δώδεκα (the twelve)
The inclusion of the article τοὺς may indicate that “the twelve” has
become the official title of Jesus’ disciples.
7 καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον (Simon, who he gave the name Peter)
The literal Greek is “and he gave the name Peter to Simon”. This is a somewhat crude way to start naming the twelve, so the sentence has been reconstructed to show the the beginning of the list of disciples properly in the english language.
8 Matthew or Levi as indicated in 2:13-14.
9 Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον (Simon the Cananaean)
Or Simon the Zealot. Simon’s zeal may have been religious, but was more likely to a “patriotic” zeal. In other words, Simon may not have been a fan of the Roman Empire.
10 Ἰσκαριώθ (Iscariot)
“A man from Kerioth” If this is the true meaning of Iscariot, it indicates that Judas Iscariot was the only disciple that was not from the Galilee as Kerioth was in Judea.
11 παρέδωκεν (betrayed)
Literally, “handed over”.
Μάρκον 3·13 Καὶ ἀναβαίνει εἰς τὸ ὄρος καὶ προσκαλεῖται οὓς ἤθελεν αὐτός, καὶ ἀπῆλθον πρὸς αὐτόν. 14 καὶ ἐποίησεν δώδεκα [οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν] ἵνα ὦσιν μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἵνα ἀποστέλλῃ αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν 15 καὶ ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιμόνια· 16 [καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα,] καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον, 17 καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτοῖς ὀνόμα[τα] βοανηργές, ὅ ἐστιν υἱοὶ βροντῆς· 18 Καὶ Ἀνδρέαν καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖον καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον 19 καὶ Ἰούδαν Ἰσκαριώθ, ὃς καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτόν.