23 And it came to pass1 that he was passing through the grain- field on the Sabbath, and his disciples began to make their way2 while picking the heads of grain. 24 And the Pharisees said to him, “Look! Why are they doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath?” 25 And he said to them, “Have you never3 read what David did when he and they with him were in need and hungry, 26 how he went into the house of God when Abiathar4 was high-priest, and ate the bread loaves offered to God, which is not lawful for anyone to eat except the priest, and he also gave to them who were with him?” 27 And he said to them, “The Sabbath was made5 for6 mankind7 and not mankind for the Sabbath, 28 therefore, the Son of Man is Master8 even9 of the Sabbath.”
1 Καὶ ἐγένετο (And it came to pass)
Greek: “It became”
2 ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν (began to make their way)
Greek: “they began to make way”. This could mean that they were clearing a way by picking the grain. If so, that would add to the Pharisees’ idea that the disciples were working on the Sabbath.
3 οὐδέποτε (never)
In Greek, a negative reference can be used to infer a “yes” or “no” answer. In this case, since οὐδέποτε is used instead of μηδέποτε, the expected answer from the Pharisees is “yes”. In other words, Jesus knew that the Pharisees had read the passage and expected a “yes” answer from them.
4 Variant reading. Ahimolech was high-priest, not Abiathar.
5 ἐγένετο (was made)
Greek: “came into existence” or “became”.
6 διὰ (for)
A greek preposition meaning “on account of”, or “because of”.
7 τὸν ἄνθρωπον (mankind)
Greek: “man”. The Sabbath was made for all people.
8 κύριός (Master)
This is translated most of the time at “Lord”, but it can also be translated as “master”, or “sir”. The context must decide. Since Jesus is showing his authority in this passage, I felt that “Master of the Sabbath” fit the context better.
9 καὶ (also)
καὶ can also mean “even”. Both translations would show that Jesus’ authority includes the Sabbath as well.
Μάρκον 2·23 Καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν παραπορεύεσθαι διὰ τῶν σπορίμων, καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν τίλλοντες τοὺς στάχυας. 24 καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ· ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν; 25 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν Δαυὶδ ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν καὶ ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ, 26 πῶς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθὰρ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγεν, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἱερεῖς, καὶ ἔδωκεν καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν; 27 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον· 28 ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου.